Seven common machining methods and approaches

22-01-2021

Seven common machining methods and approaches

1, Turning

Turning is mainly due to the rotation of the workpiece, through the turning tool to cut the workpiece into the required shape. When the tool moves along the parallel axis of rotation, the internal and external cylindrical surface can be obtained. The tapered surface is formed when the tool moves along an oblique line intersecting with the axis. Rotary surfaces are formed on a profiling lathe or CNC lathe with a controlled tool feed along a curve. Another type of rotary surface is produced by using a shaped turning tool with transverse feed. In addition to this machining threaded surfaces, end planes and eccentric shafts can also be machined by turning.

2, Milling

Milling processing mainly relies on the rotation of the tool. Milling is divided into horizontal milling and vertical milling. The plane of horizontal milling is formed by the edge on the outer surface of the milling cutter. Vertical milling is formed by the end face of the milling cutter. To obtain higher cutting speed and increase productivity, the speed of the milling cutter can be increased. However, due to the milling cutter teeth cutting in and out, forming impact, the cutting process is prone to vibration, thus limiting the improvement of surface quality.

3, Planing

Planing is mainly a reciprocating linear motion of the tool to cut the workpiece. Therefore, the speed of planning is relatively low, and thus the productivity is low. But the accuracy and surface roughness of planing is smoother than the result of milling.

4, Grinding

The grinding process mainly relies on the grinding wheel and abrasive to process the workpiece, relying on the rotation of the grinding wheel. When the grinding wheel is grinding, the abrasive grains on the grinding wheel mainly perform three effects on the surface of the workpiece: cutting, scoring, and sliding. The abrasive grains themselves are gradually dulled from sharpness, making the cutting action worse and the cutting force greater. Therefore, after grinding for a certain period of time, it is necessary to dress the grinding wheel with a grinding wheel dresser.

5, Tooth surface processing

Tooth surface processing is a new processing method, and this processing method is divided into two categories: one is the forming method, and the other is the spreading method. The forming method mainly uses the ordinary milling machine for processing, the tool is forming milling cutter, the need for tool rotation and linear movement of the two simple forming movements. The common machine tools used in the spreading method are hobbing machines, gear shaping machines, etc.

6, Complex surface processing

For the processing of complex surfaces, CNC machine tools come in handy. Cutting of three-dimensional surfaces, mainly using profiling and CNC milling methods or special processing methods. Imitation milling must have the prototype as a model. Machining ball head profiling head has been a certain pressure to contact the prototype surface. In conventional machining, the motion of the profiling head is transformed into an inductive quantity, and the machining amplification controls the motion of the three axes of the milling machine to form the trajectory of the head along the surface. The milling cutter mostly uses a ball-head milling cutter with the same radius as the profiling head. The advent of CNC technology has provided a more efficient method for surface machining.

7, Special processing

Special machining is different from traditional cutting mechanical processing, special machining can use physical (electricity, sound, light, heat, magnetic), chemical, or electrochemical methods to process the workpiece material, so that the workpiece into the shape we need.


In the selection of mechanical processing methods, we must consider many aspects and choose the right method, so that the production of products, whether precision or quality, are guaranteed. With the continuous development of science and technology, the form of machining is also increasing, in addition to the several common ways introduced in the text, there are many ways of processing.




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